• About SNS

    The Scuola Normale Superiore is a public institute for higher education that in its two centuries of life has earned itself a special place, both in Italy and abroad, a place characterised by merit, talent and scientific rigour.  Two types of course are available: the undergraduate course and the PhD course.The teaching activity is distributed among three academic structures: the Faculty of Humanities, the Faculty of Mathematical and Natural Sciences, placed in Pisa, and the Institute of Humanities and Social Sciences, located in Palazzo Strozzi in Florence. 

  • Admission

    The evaluation for entrance to the first year of the undergraduate course does not include the high school leaving certificate, and the bachelor's degree is not taken into consideration in the entrance examination for the fourth year course. For each PhD course, candidates’ level of competence, talent, motivations and aptitudes to scientific research will be assessed on the basis of their qualifications and research project and an interview.

  • Academics

    The Scuola Normale Superiore offers two types of course: the undergraduate course, leading to first and second level university degrees, and the PhD course, the international equivalent of the Italian Dottorato di ricerca.The teaching and research activity is distributed among three academic structures: the Faculty of Humanities, the Faculty of Mathematical and Natural Sciences, and the Institute of Humanities and Social Sciences.The first two academic structures, housed at the Pisa site, organize courses for both the  undergraduate course and the PhD course. The Institute of Humanities and Social Sciences, situated in Palazzo Strozzi in Florence, deals only with the PhD course.

  • Research

    A highly qualifying feature of the Normale way is the strong link between teaching and research that is a characteristic of both the undergraduate and the graduate programmes of the Scuola. The research structures of the two Faculties welcome students with a relevant study interest, enabling them to collaborate in a mature way with the activities of the researchers.

  • International

    The Scuola Normale is an institute of a decidedly international nature. Examinations for admission to the undergraduate degree course and for the PhD course are open to all citizens worldwide. A certain number of places on the PhD course are reserved for students from other countries. During the pre laurea and  post lauream teaching courses, study and research programmes are made available at overseas universities and research centres with which the Scuola forms an intense network of collaboration.  The doctorate course in particular is taught in a veritable graduate school in line with the highest international standards. 


Palazzo Strozzi

Istituto di Scienze Umane e Sociali
Piazza degli Strozzi, 1
50123, FIRENZE


Leonidas Oikonomakis holds a Ph.d in Social and Political Sciences from the European University Institute (EUI), and is currently a researcher of the Center on Social Movement Studies (COSMOS) at the Scuola Normale Superiore. His research and teaching focuses on Latin American politics, social movements, autonomy, revolutions and electoral politics. He is also a rapper with hip-hop formation Social Waste, and a member of the editorial collective of ROAR Magazine.

Most recent publications:

  1. 2015 Francis Patrick O'Connor and Leonidas Oikonomakis (2015) Pre-conflict Mobilization Strategies and Urban-Rural Transition: The Cases of the PKK and the FLN/EZLN. Mobilization: An International Quarterly: September 2015, Vol. 20, No. 3, pp. 379-399. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.17813/1086-671X-20-3-379
  2. 2014 Oikonomakis, L. and F. Espinoza, 2014. “Bolivia’s MAS and its actual relation with the movements that brought it to state power.” In Becker, Stahler-Sholk, and Vanden, 2014.   Rethinking Latin American Social Movements: Radical Action from Below. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. Peer-reviewed publication of the Latin American Perspectives journal.
  3. 2014 Oikonomakis, L. and J. Roos, 2014. “They don’t represent us. The  Global Resonance of the Real Democracy Movement from the Indignados to Occupy.” In Della Porta, D. and A. Matoni, 2014. The transnational diffusion of protest from the Indignados to Occupy Wall Street. ECPR Press.
  4. 2016 Oikonomakis, L. and J. Roos, 2016. “From Diffusion to Resonance. How the Global Movement for Real Democracy spread across borders.” In Dufour, Ancelovici, and Nez, 2016. Street Politics in the Age of Austerity. Amsterdam University Press.

Relevant previous projects:

Mobilizing For Democracy (M4D)


  • Latin American politics
  • Autonomy
  • Social Movements
  • Revolutions
  • Electoral politics